Is it legal to trade Bitcoin?

Last Updated: December 1, 2022

A single entity — in most cases, a central bank – creates, releases, and controls all fiat currencies in the globe. Ordinary folks can only buy, sell, or keep the cash, according to the law. Anyone attempting to make any amount of money will very certainly end up in prison.

Bitcoin offered a completely radically innovative concept. The world’s first autonomous digital currency. Furthermore, the fundamental principle of Bitcoin suggests that anyone with sufficient computational power can generate coins just by engaging in activities.

Law enforcement agencies, tax officials, and legal regulators all across the world are battling with the concept of digital currencies and where it fits into existing law and regulatory frameworks as it becomes more common.

Bitcoin’s legality is based on who you are, where you are in the globe, what you’d like to do with it. Here’s our guide on Bitcoin legal difficulties, which focuses primarily on the United States but also covers other important countries.

Digital currency safety concerns.

Many governments are still trying to figure out what Bitcoin is and how to classify it legally. Its unique nature has generated a lot of concern. It’s only reasonable for governments to be concerned about an uncontrollable financial system.

This includes financial transactions as well as the safeguarding of people’s assets. While exchanges in the United States are required to be regulated, many foreign platforms are not. Indeed, there have been countless incidents of bitcoin exchanges immediately closing down and vanishing with people’s funds throughout history.

The bankruptcy of the famous exchange Mt.Gox is the most well-known example. Due to technological issues and the apparent theft or loss of 744,000 of its users’ Bitcoins, the formerly most prominent Bitcoin exchange in existence filed for bankruptcy at the beginning of 2014. About 6% of the 12.4 million Bitcoins in circulation at the time were in this amount.

Another point of contention is Bitcoin’s potential to be used moderately. Although every transaction is recorded in the Blockchain, users can remain virtually fully anonymous because the records only contain the public keys and the number of funds moved.

The majority of these issues were raised after the illegal online market Silk Road received global media attention because Bitcoins were the sole method of payment allowed there. Although the FBI has subsequently shut down the platform, authorities remain concerned about Bitcoin’s popularity among illegal goods and services traders. Furthermore, Bitcoin’s semi-anonymity and decentralized structure are thought to be vulnerable to money laundering and tax evasion schemes.

The role determines your opportunities.

Purchasing merchandise:

The US Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network recognized Bitcoin as a convertible decentralized virtual money in 2013. (FinCEN). They’ve also published instructions, stating that those who receive virtual currency units and use them to buy products aren’t considered money transmitters and are acting legally.

As a result, purchasing good-natured goods and services with Bitcoins is perfectly legal. Several major and minor online marketplaces and service providers, such as Overstock, Shopify, and OkCupid, accept cryptocurrency as a form of payment. Furthermore, Bitcoins can be used to pay for goods and services in stores and restaurants around the United States.

Investing in bitcoins:

Investing in Bitcoin, according to the same guidelines, is also lawful. Anti-money laundering and Know Your Customer standards must be followed by many regulated US-based exchanges. As a result, anyone wishing to trade or invest in Bitcoin must first validate their identity and link their bank account. However, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) has advised potential investors that Bitcoin users may be targeted by both fraudsters and marketers of high-risk investment schemes.

Bitcoin miners have rarely been prosecuted under the law:

Users who create Bitcoin units and exchange them for fiat cash may be considered money transmitters, according to FinCEN guidance, and may be subject to particular rules and regulations governing that type of activity.

However, the restrictions against Bitcoin miners have seldom, if ever, been enforced.

Bitcoins as a form of payment for business:

Accepting Bitcoin payments is lawful for both the private and public sectors. Of course, this assumes that it’s a good-natured company that offers goods and services in conventional cash and accepts Bitcoin as a legal form of payment. Taxes on Bitcoin income must be paid by any business that accepts Bitcoin payments. Accepting Bitcoin as a form of payment is the same as accepting cash, gold, or gift cards because it has been designated as a convertible virtual currency.

Bitcoin should be taxed:

According to the Internal Revenue Service’s (IRS) Virtual Cash Guidance, cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin should be classified as property rather than currency, and should be taxed as such. It isn’t, however, as straightforward as it may appear. If you spend $300 on something, you’ve just sold an asset. Depending on the value of Bitcoin when you acquired it and when you sold it, you either made a profit or a loss on that deal. The circumstances determine whether the gain is ordinary or capital and whether it is short or long term. Although the regulation isn’t completely clear, the IRS is attempting to enforce it. Only 802 persons paid taxes on Bitcoin profits in 2015. According to reports, the IRS is deploying specialized software to seek down Bitcoin tax evaders. The House of Representatives recently introduced a compromise bill that seeks a tax exemption for transactions under $600. If passed, it will greatly simplify the lives of small-time traders. It’s a good idea to make note of any Bitcoin-related activity till then.

When it comes to Bitcoin trading, records must include the same information as stock or FX brokerage statements: date, description, amount, price, and fees. If you’re mining Bitcoin, you’ll want to know when the funds were received. Businesses that accept Bitcoins as a form of payment must keep track of the sales reference, the amount received in BTC, and the transaction date. If sales taxes are due, the amount owed is determined using the average exchange rate at the time of purchase.

Bit-License, a set of restrictions for Bitcoin businesses:

The New York State Department of Financial Services (NYDFS) has proposed Bit-License, a set of restrictions for Bitcoin businesses operating in or serving New York people. Only five licenses had been given as of September 2017, two years after the rule took effect, and the companies that we’re able to secure them had to spend upwards of $100,000 to do so. Many companies choose not to serve New York citizens, with Bitfinex calling the NYDFS rules “extremely invasive” and stating that they would compromise the privacy of their user base.

A $5,000 application fee is required to receive the license. Companies that want to get the license must hire a compliance officer to oversee the company’s adherence to the rules. Furthermore, all other federal and state regulations governing Bitcoin must be followed. Compliance with Money Transmitter rules, Anti-Money Laundering, and Know Your Customer procedures are all part of this. The cost of such safeguards can easily exceed.

The viewpoints of policymakers:

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)(the federal system that monitors the financial markets):

In comparison to regulatory agencies in other nations, the Securities and Exchange Commission has been surprisingly quiet on the matter of Bitcoins. They issued an investor advisory in 2014, warning that fraudsters may target Bitcoin users.

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) recently investigated the ‘DAO’ cryptocurrency initial coin offering (ICO), which was hacked and around $50 million worth of Silver coins were stolen. The SEC’s investigation centered on whether DAO currencies were securities.

The investigation stated that putting money in a token in the hopes of profiting from other people’s managerial efforts qualifies a cryptocurrency as security that requires suitable regulation. The SEC’s report, on the other hand, was solely focused on Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs), although Bitcoin is much beyond that. As a result, any regulations imposed by the SEC will almost certainly solely affect beginners to the market.

Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) (the federal agency that investigates and prosecutes financial crimes):

Virtual money, as described by FinCEN’s cryptocurrency guidelines, is a “means of exchange that behaves like a currency in some situations but does not have all the features of actual currency.” The advice only applied to convertible virtual currencies such as Bitcoin, which can be used as a substitute for real money or have a financial equivalent.

FinCEN regulations do not consider ‘users’ of virtual currency to be MSBs (Money Serving Businesses). This means you are exempt from MSB registration, reporting, and recordkeeping requirements if you used Bitcoins to pay for products or services.

Exchangers and administrators, on the other hand, are considered money transmitters and must follow FinCEN requirements. The guideline describes ‘exchangers’ as those who trade Bitcoins and other digital currencies for a living, while ‘administrators’ work to put virtual currency into circulation for a living.

FinCEN issued a £110 million penalty on BTC-e exchange in July 2017, arrested one of its operators, and seizing the site’s domain, in its first action against a foreign-based MSB operating in the US.

Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) (the agency that regulates the trading of commodities):

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an agency of the United States government that regulates the trading of commodities in the future.

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is a federal body in the United States that is concerned with financial transactions. In 2014, a CFTC Commissioner declared that the agency had complete power over Bitcoin because it can be categorized as a commodity, according to him.

The agency recently published a primer in which it noted that, depending on the facts and circumstances, virtual currencies can be classified as commodities or derivatives transactions. As a result, Bitcoin’s exchange rate dropped by 8% as investors worried about stricter controls.

The CFTC just granted LedgerX the right to develop a regulated Bitcoin futures market, indicating that it is pro-Bitcoin. The CFTC brought its first allegations against Bitcoin scammers in September 2017. Gelfman Blueprint was charged with fraud, misappropriation, and issuing fake account statements in connection with solicited Bitcoin transactions, a move that was applauded by legitimate Bitcoin investors.

Internal Revenue Service (IRS) (a tax collection agency):

Many questions remain unanswered despite the IRS’s basic guidelines on digital currency taxation. The agency added to the confusion by declaring Bitcoin to be property, which implies that even buying a cup of coffee with the cryptocurrency will result in a tax.

Buying goods and services with Bitcoin is the same as owning the product, according to IRS laws. When you spend your Bitcoins, you’ve either made a profit or a loss, depending on the exchange rate at the time you acquired and sold it.

It is suggested that you should keep aware of all your Bitcoin-related transactions to comply with IRS requirements.

The IRS has intensified its hunt for Bitcoin tax evaders, forming a dedicated squad, after only 0.04 percent of consumers mentioned cryptocurrency in their 2017 tax returns. While the IRS is closely monitoring Bitcoin and other cryptocurrency transactions to collect more tax revenue, there has been talking of a potential tax amnesty for Bitcoin users. It remains to be seen whether or if this will occur, as well as when it will occur.

Federal Reserve (powerful banking institute):

The US Federal Reserve is the most powerful banking institution in the world, as it owns the world’s largest economy, the US dollar. They are concerned about digital currencies and the technology that supports them, and they have written in-depth articles on both Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. The fact that a financial behemoth like the Federal Reserve spent man-hours learning about Bitcoin speaks loudly about the currency’s rising popularity.

The institution, on the other hand, has consistently warned about the dangers of digital currencies. The Federal Reserve recently announced that it is paying “special attention” to Blockchain, describing it as a technology that “may ease or amplify traditional financial concerns. Digital currencies, according to a US Fed governor, could make it simpler to cover unlawful activities.

Janet Yellen, the chair of the US Federal Reserve, was recently cited as saying that the Fed is investigating the possibility of creating its digital currency. If this occurs, the United States will enter the crypto market with its official, state-controlled coin.

The National Futures Association (NFA) (the organization that promotes the trading of securities):

For the US futures market, the NFA is an autonomous self-regulatory agency. The NFA membership is needed of all futures market participants, including that trading Bitcoin.

Customer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) (the federal agency tasked with protecting consumers’ financial interests):

A consumer alert about Bitcoin has been issued by the Bureau. Potential difficulties include the risk of hacking and scams, as well as unpredictable exchange rates and possibly a lack of assistance from exchanges in the event of lost assets. In addition, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) has recognized Bitcoin’s advantages.

Legislative bodies:

In regards to Bitcoin and other digital currencies, the US Senate and House of Representatives, like most other federal entities, have remained very local.

The US Senate issued letters to several law enforcement agencies in August 2013, inquiring about the hazards and concerns posed by cryptocurrency. The majority of the agencies answered with a cautious acknowledgment of Bitcoin’s lawful usage.

Since then, both the Senate and the House of Representatives have had numerous discussions about cryptocurrencies. The Congressional Blockchain Caucus was established in 2016 to bring all members of Congress up to speed on the issue of Bitcoin and Blockchain to draught future legislation affecting that industry.

A bill was written by US politicians in the summer of 2017 to protect cryptocurrencies from government intrusion. If passed, the bill will protect some cryptocurrencies that meet certain minimal conditions, preventing them from being utilized in illegal business activity. In the fall of 2017, the bill is likely to be introduced.

Bitcoin is illegal in the following countries:


In 2014, the Vietnamese Central Bank released a declaration expressly prohibiting citizens from using Bitcoins within the country. This was done as a precaution, with the Prime Minister’s decision on digital money to be made later.

According to sources, the Vietnamese Prime Minister approved a plan in August 2017 that might lead to the legal recognition of Bitcoin and other digital currencies as a mode of payment by the end of 2018.

However, the Vietnamese government reversed course in October 2017 and explicitly prohibited the usage of digital money in the country. Anyone found using digital currencies will be fined beginning in early 2018.


The Bolivian central bank, El Banco Central de Bolivia, outlawed any currency that was not issued or regulated by the government in 2014. The bank singled out Bitcoin and a few other digital currencies, although the prohibition applies to all cryptocurrencies.

Bolivian authorities recently declared cryptocurrency to be a pyramid scam and arrested 60 people. The move was necessary, according to an accompanying statement, to remind the public that all forms of digital currency are illegal.


Due to the introduction of a new state-run electronic money system, the Ecuadorian government has banned Bitcoin and all other digital currencies. The government is in charge of the project, which is supposed to be closely linked to the local currency.

Bitcoin is legal in the following countries:


When Australians purchased or spent crypt currency, they were potentially subject to goods-and-services tax. Consumers may be taxed twice: first when they buy the cryptocurrency and again when they use it to buy products and services that are subject to the tax.

The Australian government has just provided a legislative end to the double taxation of Bitcoin and other digital currencies, in a move aimed at attracting more potential fintech investments into the country.


Instead of classifying Bitcoin as a gold-like commodity, Bulgaria was the first European Union member state to recognize it as a currency.


Currently, bitcoin is classified as a fair value. Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorist Financing regulations are expected to govern it. This provision has yet to take effect, but when it does, ‘digital currency dealers’ will be regulated as Money Services Businesses.


The People’s Bank of China (PBOC) prohibited all financial institutions from conducting Bitcoin-related transactions in 2013, forbidding Bitcoin pricing, buying, and selling. Individuals are still permitted to trade Bitcoins in China.

The Chinese authorities have been pushing down on crypt currency use in the nation, requesting that various exchanges cease withdrawals without giving any legal documentation. To stay in compliance with the legislation, all Chinese virtual currency exchanges were told to suspend trading by the end of September 2017.

Cryptocurrency exchanges and initial coin offerings (ICOs) have also been banned in China. While the sanctions were unquestionably severe and unusual, they were unable to entirely eradicate Bitcoin in China. China’s regulators will begin adding onshore and offshore platforms related to virtual currencies and initial coin offerings (ICOs) to the Great Firewall in their latest attempt to do so.


The Estonian Ministry of Finance has concluded that using Bitcoin and other comparable cryptocurrencies as a payment method is not illegal. When establishing a commercial relationship or if the buyer purchases more than €1,000 in currency per month, traders must identify the buyer.


For tax purposes, the Finnish Tax Administration chose to classify Bitcoin transactions as private contracts, similar to contracts for difference. Any price rise when purchasing items with Bitcoins or converting BTCs into fiat currency is taxable, but losses are not. Bitcoins that have been mined are considered earned revenue.

The Finnish Central Board of Taxes has defied EU convention by classifying all services related to Bitcoin and other comparable digital currencies as financial services, exempting them from VAT.


Bitcoin is considered private money in Germany. This judgment allows Bitcoin users to continue using the digital currency without intervention from the government, while also allowing authorities to tax the earnings of businesses that utilize it.


Transactions with Bitcoins and other digital currencies are restricted, according to a 2014 statement by Iceland’s Central Bank.


The Central Bank announced a new set of guidelines in 2017, under which broad and general exemptions from previously imposed restrictions were permitted.


Bitcoin is now classified as a taxable asset in Israel, rather than currency or financial security, as of 2017. Every time a Bitcoin is sold, the seller is required to pay a capital gains tax of 25%, according to this policy. Miners and traders are considered enterprises, therefore they must pay corporate income tax and a 17 percent VAT.

Israel is set to begin taxing Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as property, according to recent reports. This implies it will be subject to the capital gains tax, which in Israel is set at 25% for private investors and 47% for enterprises.


Bitcoin is only recognized as a legal form of payment in a few countries, including Japan. The tax on Bitcoin trading was abolished in 2017, and Japanese financial regulators began providing licenses to cryptocurrency exchanges.


Banks, exchanges, financial institutions, and payment service providers are barred from trading with Bitcoin and other digital currencies, according to Jordan’s existing regulation. Although the Central Bank of Jordan and the Jordanian government have issued warnings against utilizing Bitcoins, local companies and merchants continue to accept them.


The Mexican Congress is debating a bill to regulate the country’s fast-growing financial technology sector, which includes Digital currencies. The bill offers a clear set of standards for fintech firms, intending to lower costs and increase competition in the industry.


Bitcoin can neither be regarded as a currency nor an asset, according to the Slovenian Ministry of Finance. Capital gains tax does not apply to Bitcoin transactions, but it does apply to Bitcoin mining and businesses that provide products and services in exchange for the digital currency.


The Swedish legal system is one of the most friendly in the world when it comes to accepting Bitcoin and other digital currencies. The Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority has declared Bitcoin and other digital currencies to be legal currency. Furthermore, the Swedish tax authorities have chosen to charge Bitcoin mining based on its success.

Certain firms, mostly exchanges, must apply for a license and follow all of the rules that apply to more traditional financial service providers, such as anti-money laundering and Know Your Customer procedures.

Bitcoin is not regulated in the following countries.


Although the Minister of Finance stated that the government does not need to participate in the Bitcoin system right now, there have been discussions regarding new legislation that would enhance government control over Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies.


Indonesian authorities have yet to identify and specify policies governing or prohibiting the use of Bitcoin.

The Bank of Indonesia, on the other hand, has just published a statement cautioning potential investors about selling, buying, and trading cryptocurrencies. Any virtual currency is not legal tender in the country, according to the statement.


In 2013, the Bank of Lebanon was the first in the region to issue a Bitcoin warning. Since then, the country’s leaders have taken little to no action regarding digital currencies. The Governor of the Lebanese Central Bank is the sole significant exception, who has criticized Bitcoin and other digital currencies. He dubbed them “unregulated commodities” and suggested that they be outlawed.


The Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) of Denmark has decided that Bitcoin is not a currency and that it is not regulated by them.


The Central Bank of Brazil published a statement about cryptocurrencies in 2014, stating that Bitcoin and other digital currencies will not be regulated. A few years later, the Central Bank’s President called Bitcoin a fraudulent scam.

Hong Kong, China:

Bitcoins are a virtual commodity, according to the Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority (HKMA), and the HKMA will not control them.

According to Hong Kong’s Secretary for Financial Services and Treasury, current laws do not explicitly govern Bitcoins and other comparable digital currencies, but they do impose consequences for illegal conduct involving electronic currencies, such as fraud and money laundering.


The use of Bitcoin is not regulated, according to Colombia’s Superintendence Financiera. The Colombian government still does not authorize or legalize Bitcoin for financial transactions, according to the same governing body’s most recent statement. However, the country has no intentions to make it illegal as of yet.


In Cyprus, the usage of Bitcoins and other cryptocurrencies is unregulated.


In Greece, there is no particular legislation governing Bitcoin and other digital currencies.


IRB neither controls nor supports Bitcoins, according to the Reserve Bank of India’s Deputy Governor. Although Bitcoin is not prohibited in India, it is expected that it will not become fully legal until an appropriate agency is established to oversee all cryptocurrency-related activity.

The Indian Ministry of Finance compared Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to Ponzi scams towards the end of 2017 and warned investors about the risks.


The Central Bank of Lithuania has released a statement warning the public about the dangers of using digital currencies. The consensus was that neither Lithuanian nor European authorities regulate Bitcoins. The prospect of rules was also highlighted in the statement, although no action is expected to be taken.


Malaysia’s Central Bank declared in 2014 that Bitcoin is not legal cash and that it has no plans to regulate it.

Bank Negara, on the other hand, is now forming its new policy on cryptocurrencies. Despite the Malaysian government’s generally favorable attitude toward Bitcoin, there are worries that it may yet be banned. By the end of 2017, a decision will be taken.

New Zealand:

Non-banks do not need the Reserve Bank of New Zealand’s clearance for operations involving the storage and transfer of Bitcoins and other digital currencies as long as they do not include the issuance of actual money, according to the bank.


The Bank of Thailand first prohibited people from adopting Bitcoins, warning potential investors about the dangers. However, it has recently modified its stance, commissioning cryptocurrency research.

Thai Bitcoin exchanges must obtain a Thailand Business Development Department e-commerce license and can only enable digital currency transactions for Thai Baht, according to a ministerial order. There are also policies in place for Know Your Customer and Customer Due Diligence.

The Netherlands:

Bitcoin and other digital currencies are not currently covered by the Netherlands’ Financial Supervision Act.


The National Bank of Ukraine recently issued a statement clarifying that the Ukrainian hryvnia is the only currency that may be used lawfully in the country. The Bank also indicated that the lack of a single classification of Bitcoin in the globe complicates the situation in Ukraine and that it does not openly support any of the definitions made in other countries.

United Kingdom of Great Britain:

Bitcoin is currently uncontrolled, according to the UK government, and is exchanged as ‘private money’ for most reasons, including VAT. This means that when Bitcoin is exchanged for sterling or other currencies, no VAT is charged. Suppliers of products and services supplied in Bitcoin and other digital currencies, on the other hand, must pay VAT. Capital gains tax applies to digital currency profits and losses.


  • William Foster

    William Foster is a editor for the Central Asian and European region. Before he worked as an editor at Acuris (Mergermarket) where he was responsible for documents on startups, private equity deals, fundraising, developments and editorial direction. His most memorable time was at Reuters, where he was both a reporter and editor for various teams.

  • James Brown

    James Brown worked as a senior market reporter located in London. James has previously worked for FXStreet. He holds a Master's education in Finance. James is a small holder in Bitcoin and Ethereum.

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